PENNI  - An Introduction

'Government is the people's business and every man, woman and child becomes a shareholder with the first penny of tax paid'

Ronald Reagan

 'Invariably, organisations embark on expensive training programmes when often the return on the investment is less than 10% (VanBuren, 2001) in terms of actual improved practice and business results. Managers and those in leadership roles are key to the success of any training programme and yet they themselves are often failed when in comes to investment in their abilities and skills as managers and leaders.  

I have developed the PENNI on-line pre-training self-efficacy assessment as a motivational tool to be used before commencing any formal or informal training. It is designed to enable each manager/leader to determine which skills they need to develop, before they commence the training course. In this way, the manager/leader can discuss the results/scores and agree a development strategy. The manager/leader is then more prepared for the training, more focused on what it is they are trying to learn and more motivated to achieve their goals. Thus, there is a greater likelihood of the learning being transferred into the working environment and affecting business improvement.  

The PENNI on-line pre-training self-efficacy assessment is intended as a little light entertainment whilst maintaining a serious message; training and development that does not enhance skills and improve business performance can be simply classified as waste and of little value. Enabling businesses to improve through the enhancement of management and leadership skills has been a key driver of my own development for over 35 years. The PENNI pre-training self-efficacy assessment is my contribution to the debate around improved productivity and happier workforces.’







Steve Elliott MBA CMgr MCMI


The following model outlines the process and value of using pre-training self-efficacy as a pre-cursor to more formalised training and developent courses. The scores set against the mechanics (processes), dynamics (relationships) and systemics (holistic entirety) provide context for the trainee. They are able to identify where improvements are needed and set out their training and learning accordingly. 

Having undertaken this process, training transfer, the ability of the new learning to move into the working environment and effect positive improvement to the business is more likely to occur. 

The PENNI pre-training self-efficacy model:

Pre-Training Assessment Model.png

                                                                                                                                                         Elliott, S. 2012


1. VanBuren M. E. (2001) The ASTD State of the Industry Report, (Alexandria, AV: ASTD) cited in Geron, H. et al (2014), The Impact of Self-Efficacy towards Training Motivation at Kolej Poly Tech MARA Suantan,Malaysia